CNIT focuses on research, innovation and high-quality education in the scientific areas of Telecommunication and Electromagnetic Fields. Among its activities there are both basic and applied research on specific technologies. Additionally, it leverages skills and technologies related to the above disciplines for applications in the most diverse scenarios (for example, Environment, Multimedia, Health, Security, Space, Transportation).
Typical technologies in our field include:
- communication systems and networks: Internet, cellular networks, wireless networks (WiFi, Bluetooth), optical networks, radio and television, satellite systems;
- remote sensing systems: radar, lidar, sensor networks;
- data and image processing;
- positioning and navigation systems (GPS, Galileo).
These technologies, and the skills they require, are essential in most areas: ranging from those closest to telecommunications, on to seemingly remote applications that rely more and more on telecommunications. In no particular order: the Internet of Things, vehicles, buildings, harbours, data centers, medicine, network security.
A multidisciplinary approach is today crucial to address specific systems or application scenarios in an integrated way. CNIT contributes to this effort with its skills in telecommunication and EMF disciplines, which are officially described by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) as follows.
- TELECOMMUNICATIONS – This discipline investigates the planning, the design, the hardware/software assembling and running of devices, systems and infrastructures for applications with the following aims: transferring signals through cables (copper or fibre), wireless links (ground or satellite) or other propagation mediums, using specific technologies such as those for optical and mobile communication; processing mono/multidimensional signals for the purpose of filtering, redundancy reduction, information retrieval; delivering ways for the semantic interpretation of the information content of signals and images; interconnecting networks for information transfer and for interactive and distribution services for telematics applications; remote sensing for positioning/identifications of still/mobile objects in air/sea/ground control and environmental monitoring. The field includes basic topics (random process theory, information theory, signal and coding theory, traffic theory and protocols…) as well as system/technology skills indispensable for professionals who are capable of managing and solving problems in an economically viable fashion, while contributing to the scientific/technological advancement of the field.
- ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS (EMF) – This discipline investigates theoretical, experimental, numerical and practical aspects of electromagnetic fields and, in particular, RF fields, micro- and mm-waves, TeraHertz and optical communications; it also studies electrical, electronic, optical, photonic components, circuits and systems. Within the domain of information and telecommunication engineering, the core studies are concerned with free and guided propagation and the methods to design and characterise circuits and antennas, along with the analysis of electrodynamics, radiation and diffraction problems. Propagation studies aim at characterising the transmission channel for fixed and mobile communications and for optical system and components, with the additional goal of service planning and provisioning. The design of active and passive circuits and of high-frequency antennas requires the analysis of very complex scenarios, within the domain components for micro- and mm-wave circuits and systems. Similar considerations apply for optical and photonics circuits and technologies. EMF remote sensing has several applications. The most popular is remote sensing through radar, lidar and radiometric systems, crucial for such applications as environmental diagnostics, as well as aviation and space applications. Other important EMF diagnostics applications are in the sectors of biomedicine, of civil/industrial materials and in complex systems characterization for logistics, safety and security. Interactions among EMF and biological systems lead to interesting protection and biomedical applications. Electromagnetic compatibility is investigated for industrial material processing and sensor manufacturing. Finally, other activities in the area aim at the development of artificial materials (metamaterials) for electromagnetic applications, as well as at techniques for the analysis and design of electrically-controlled micro- and nano-structures for nanotechnological/biomedical applications.